Gradle:Gradle入门

2021年11月21日 阅读数:10
这篇文章主要向大家介绍Gradle:Gradle入门,主要内容包括基础应用、实用技巧、原理机制等方面,希望对大家有所帮助。

1、安装Gradle java

1.首先确保你安装的JDK1.5或以上版本号。 app

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS>java -version 
java version "1.8.0_65" 
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_65-b17) 
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.65-b01, mixed mode) 

2.从官方站点下载对应的版本号,将下载文件解压到某个文件夹; ide

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS>gradle -v 
------------------------------------------------------------ 
Gradle 2.2.1 
------------------------------------------------------------ 
Build time:   2014-11-24 09:45:35 UTC 
Build number: none 
Revision:     6fcb59c06f43a4e6b1bcb401f7686a8601a1fb4a 
Groovy:       2.3.6 
Ant:          Apache Ant(TM) version 1.9.3 compiled on December 23 2013 
JVM:          1.8.0_45 (Oracle Corporation 25.45-b02) 
OS:           Windows 7 6.1 amd64

2、開始使用Gradle gradle

1.每个Gradle构建都是一个脚本開始的,构建默认的脚本名称是build.gradle。ui

当运行gradle命令的时候。Gradle会去寻找名字为build.gradle的文件。spa

假设找不到,就会显示一个帮助信息。 命令行

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle 
:help 
Welcome to Gradle 2.2.1. 
To run a build, run gradle <task> ... 
To see a list of available tasks, run gradle tasks 
To see a list of command-line options, run gradle --help 
BUILD SUCCESSFUL 
Total time: 3.132 secs 

2.建立build.gradle文件,建立task叫作helloWorld,文件例如如下。并运行该任务:gradle -q helloWord; debug

build.gradle文件 日志

task helloWorld{ 
    //task运行的最后一个目标 
    doLast { 
        println 'Hello world!' 
    } 
} 

运行task任务helloWord,经过-q定义可选命令行选项quiet。component

 

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle -q helloWorld 
Hello world! 

3.建立新的build.gradle文件,演示gradle的task依赖dependsOn来讲明task之间的依赖,Gradle和Ant很是好的集成,定义动态task,运行时指定它们的名字; 

build.gradle文件 

task startSession << { 
    chant() 
} 
 
def chant() { 
    //隐含对Ant任务的使用 
    ant.echo(message: 'Repeat after me ...') 
} 
 
//动态任务的定义 
3.times { 
    task "yayGradle$it" << { 
        println 'gradle tocks' 
    } 
} 
 
//依赖任务 
yayGradle0.dependsOn startSession 
yayGradle2.dependsOn yayGradle1, yayGradle0 
task groupTherapy (dependsOn: yayGradle2) 

运行gradle构建,运行命令gralde groupTherapy。gradle task运行顺序:startSession->yayGradle0->yayGradle1->yayGradle2->groupTherapy; 

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle groupTherapy 
:startSession 
[ant:echo] Repeat after me ... 
:yayGradle0 
gradle tocks 
:yayGradle1 
gradle tocks 
:yayGradle2 
gradle tocks 
:groupTherapy 
 
BUILD SUCCESSFUL 
 
Total time: 3.83 secs 

3、使用Gradle的命令行 

1.gradle提供了一个叫作tasks的帮助任务来帮助你查看构建脚本和显示每个可以使用的task。包括描写叙述该task做用的信息; 

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle -q tasks 
 
------------------------------------------------------------ 
All tasks runnable from root project 
------------------------------------------------------------ 
//任务组Build Setup,看作是多个task的集群 
Build Setup tasks 
----------------- 
init - Initializes a new Gradle build. [incubating] 
wrapper - Generates Gradle wrapper files. [incubating] 
 
//Help任务组。列出了任务名字和它们的描写叙述 
Help tasks 
---------- 
components - Displays the components produced by root project 'HelloWorld'. [incubating] 
dependencies - Displays all dependencies declared in root project 'HelloWorld'. 
dependencyInsight - Displays the insight into a specific dependency in root project 'HelloWorld'. 
help - Displays a help message. 
projects - Displays the sub-projects of root project 'HelloWorld'. 
properties - Displays the properties of root project 'HelloWorld'. 
tasks - Displays the tasks runnable from root project 'HelloWorld'. 
 
//假设某个task不属于不论什么一个任务组。那么它就会显示在Other tasks中 
Other tasks 
----------- 
groupTherapy 
 
To see all tasks and more detail, run with --all. 

2.查看构建脚本中定义的其它的task; 

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle -q tasks - -all 
… …  
Other tasks 
----------- 
//依赖关系图的根task,以运行顺序用缩进的方式列出依赖任务的名字 
groupTherapy 
    startSession 
    yayGradle0 
    yayGradle1 
    yayGradle2 

4、任务运行 

1.经过在命令行中经过多个參数,一次运行多个任务。 

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle yayGradle0 groupTherapy 
:startSession 
[ant:echo] Repeat after me ... 
:yayGradle0 
gradle tocks 
:yayGradle1 
gradle tocks 
:yayGradle2 
gradle tocks 
:groupTherapy 
 
BUILD SUCCESSFUL 
 
Total time: 3.826 secs 

2.可以使用驼峰式的缩写在命令行上运行任务,任务名字的缩写必须是惟一的,Gradle才干找到对应的任务; 

正确运行 

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle yG0 gT 
:startSession 
[ant:echo] Repeat after me ... 
:yayGradle0 
gradle tocks 
:yayGradle1 
gradle tocks 
:yayGradle2 
gradle tocks 
:groupTherapy 
 
BUILD SUCCESSFUL 
 
Total time: 3.8 secs 

错误运行 
build.gradle文件 

task groupTherapy << { 
} 
 
task generateTests << { 
} 

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle yG0 gT 
FAILURE: Build failed with an exception. 
 
* What went wrong: 
Task 'yG0' not found in root project 'HelloWorld'. 
 
* Try: 
Run gradle tasks to get a list of available tasks. Run with --stacktrace option 
to get the stack trace. Run with                                               --info 
or                                                                             --debug 
option to get more log output. 
 
BUILD FAILED 
 
Total time: 4.423 secs 

3.在运行任务时排除一个任务,-x參数来实现; 

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle groupTherapy -x  
//gradle排除了和它依赖的任务yayGradle0和startSession 
yayGradle0 
:yayGradle1 
gradle tocks 
:yayGradle2 
gradle tocks 
:groupTherapy 
 
BUILD SUCCESSFUL 
 
Total time: 3.511 secs 

5、命令行选项 

1.-?,h,- -help:打印所有可用的命令行选项。包括描写叙述信息。 

2.-b,--build-file:运行一个特定名字的构建脚本。 

3.-i,--info:将Gradle的日志级别的改变到INFO以得到不少其它信息。 

4.-s,--stacktrace:构建在运行出现错误,有异常抛出时会打印出简短的堆栈跟踪信息。 

5.-q,--quiet:下降构建出错时打印出来的错误日志信息。 

 

6、Gradle守护进程 

1.守护进程之后台进程方式运行Gradle。一旦启动。gradle命令就会在兴许的构建中重用以前建立的守护进行,以免启动时形成的开销; 

2.--daemon选项,守护进行仅仅会被建立一次。即时你在命令加了--daemon选项。 

3.守护进行会在3个小时空暇时以后本身主动活期。 

4.--no-daemon,手动中止守护进程; 

C:\Users\chengxiang.peng.QUNARSERVERS\GradleSources\HelloWorld>gradle groupTherapy --daemon 
:startSession 
[ant:echo] Repeat after me ... 
:yayGradle0 
gradle tocks 
:yayGradle1 
gradle tocks 
:yayGradle2 
gradle tocks 
:groupTherapy 
 
BUILD SUCCESSFUL 
 
Total time: 2.171 secs